The Israeli war on Gaza Strip has obviously impacts of international law violations and cast a long shadow over the Gaza Strip, leaving a trail of devastating effects that extend well beyond the immediate physical damage of warfare. While the direct impacts on areas like environment, infrastructure, and public health are well-documented, it is essential to recognize the multitude of other aspects influenced by these conflicts. This paper provides a summary of these broader consequences, including the humanitarian crisis, economic instability, psychological trauma, disruption of education, security and governance challenges, refugee crises and cultural heritage preservation. The conflicts have not only reshaped the physical landscape but have also left an indelible mark on the social, political, and cultural fabric of the region. Understanding these multifaceted effects is crucial for a comprehensive grasp of the situation in the Gaza Strip and the ongoing complexities of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The genocide in the Gaza Strip has resulted in the killing of over 15,000 Palestinians and erased entire families in the hundreds from the civil registry. The number of Palestinian martyrs reached more than 15,000 during the first 55 days of the war (October 7 - November 30, 2023), 73% of whom are children and women, while the number of injured reached to more than 35,000 (during the same period). Additionally, thousands are still buried under the rubble and have not been rescued or retrieved until the moment of writing this article.
In this war and targeting of the civilian infrastructure in Gaza Strip, entire residential blocks, with its high towers and thousands of houses, have been flattened to the ground. The indiscriminate bombardment has also caused massive destruction to the infrastructure, hospitals, health centers, ambulances, homes, schools, universities, mosques, churches, bakeries, agricultural lands, and agricultural, commercial and industrial facilities that were completely or partially destroyed.
Thousands of homes were completely destroyed on the heads of their residents. The war made hundreds of thousands homeless and displaced overnight. Many of them were displaced to UNRWA schools and facilities, mosques and churches, which were also not spared from the bombardment. There is no safe place in Gaza Strip.
The majority of the victims are civilians, and most of them are children, women and elderly. The bloody scenes are countless. The bodies of hundreds of children were burned in front of the eyes of the entire world. Amidst all this brutality, the Israeli army as occupying power has failed to achieve most of its major military goals, such as eliminating the firing of missiles out of Gaza Strip, or hunting down leading figures Hamas and other factions or destroying its infrastructure and tunnels. However, it has caused numerous massacres against defenseless, besieged and starving people.
In addition to all of that, water and sewage stations that served hundreds of thousands of citizens were also destroyed. The destruction in Gaza Strip is enormous and terrifying, and the process of rebuilding what was destroyed will take many years.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which includes various military operations and wars involving Israel and Gaza Strip, has had significant environmental and ecological effects on the Gaza Strip. These effects can be both direct and indirect and are a result of the destruction caused by the Israeli occupation, the blockade imposed on Gaza Strip, and the broader socio-political context. Here are some of the key environmental and ecological impacts of the Israeli war in Gaza Strip:
- Damage to Infrastructure: The Israeli war in Gaza Strip has resulted in massive destruction of infrastructure, including water and sewage treatment facilities, electrical grids, and transportation systems. This has direct environmental consequences, such as contamination of water sources, sewage spills, and disruption of essential services, which can have long-term health and environmental implications.
- Water Pollution: The destruction of infrastructure, coupled with limited resources and restrictions on imports, has hindered the ability to maintain and repair sewage and wastewater treatment facilities. This has led to the discharge of untreated sewage into the Mediterranean Sea, resulting in water pollution and potential harm to marine ecosystems.
- Groundwater Depletion: The Gaza Strip's limited access to fresh water has been exacerbated by Israeli wars and the ongoing blockade. Over-extraction of groundwater for drinking and agricultural purposes, combined with saltwater intrusion from the Mediterranean Sea, has caused groundwater depletion and salinization, which negatively impacts agriculture and the environment.
- Soil Degradation: The Israeli wars against Gaza Strip have disrupted agricultural activities, with the use of explosives causing soil erosion and contamination. The destruction of farmlands and greenhouses has had a long-lasting impact on agricultural productivity and soil quality. Prior to this war, Israel had prevented Palestinians from utilizing the most fertile lands of the Gaza Strip along the border with Israel, which are referred to as the “Access Restricted Ares (ARA)” or “Buffer Zone”.
- Habitat Destruction: Israeli military operations have resulted in the destruction of natural habitats and urban areas, affecting local flora and fauna.
- Air Pollution: Israeli wars against Gaza Strip have generated air pollution due to the burning of buildings, infrastructure, and other materials, resulting in health problems and environmental damage.
- Human Displacement: The war and insecurity have forced many Palestinians in Gaza Strip to leave their homes and seek refuge elsewhere. This displacement has placed additional pressure on the environment in host communities and can lead to unsustainable practices.
- Blockade-related Impacts: The ongoing 16-year blockade imposed by Israel on the Gaza Strip, which restricts the movement of goods and people, has led to shortages of essential supplies, including fuel for electricity and cooking. This has forced some residents to resort to using open fires and inefficient heating methods, which can also contribute to air pollution and deforestation.
- Economic Strain: The current Israeli war and previous wars have strained the economy of Gaza Strip, limiting resources for environmental protection and conservation efforts.
It's important to note that these environmental and ecological impacts are interrelated and can exacerbate existing challenges. Efforts to mitigate these effects would require the lifting of the blockade, investment in infrastructure, access to essential resources, and sustainable development practices. Environmental organizations, local authorities, and international agencies should work to address these issues.
Internationally prohibited lethal weapons
The use of internationally prohibited lethal weapons by the Israeli occupation forces, such as chemical weapons and incendiary shells, explains the large number of victims who arrived at the hospitals of the Gaza Strip with charred bodies, or torn limbs, in addition to disfigurement, amputated upper and lower limbs, and deep burns that reached the bones. They also used poisonous gases that targeted Gaza Strip, as it appeared in many cases of victims that reached Al-Shifa Hospital.
As in the previous Israeli wars of 2008-2009, 2012, 2014 and 2021, it is evidenced that some targets in the Gaza Strip were subjected to air and ground bombardment during this brutal war with cluster bombs, which are classified globally as weapons of mass destruction.
Israel has also used vacuum bombs, in the targeting of buildings. Vacuum bombs cause the internal air to be discharged (suctioned) from the targeted building, so the large difference between the very low internal pressure of the building and the high external pressure causes the building to explode and collapse inward.
The injuries of this type of bomb are characterized by significant damage to the internal organs of the body, while the external effects and wounds on the body appear to be minor. It is worth noting that Israel used this type of bombs during its invasion of Lebanon and the siege of Beirut in 1982, the war of July 2006 against Lebanon as well as the wars on Gaza Strip in December- January (2008-2009), 2014 and 2021.
Israel bombarded Gaza Strip with Phosphoric bombs, which is internationally banned. Phosphoric bombs, often referred to as white phosphorus (WP) munitions, have been used in various conflicts, including those involving Israel and Gaza Strip. The use of phosphoric bombs can have significant environmental and ecological effects:
- Human Health: Phosphoric bombs can cause severe burns and injuries to individuals, leading to long-term health consequences. These burns can result in tissue damage and scarring. Inhaling or ingesting white phosphorus particles can also lead to systemic toxicity, affecting multiple organs. The release of white phosphorus particles into the air can cause respiratory issues in the human population.
- Soil Contamination: Phosphoric bombs can cause fires upon impact, which can ignite vegetation and structures. The combustion of white phosphorus releases phosphorus pentoxide (P4O10), a highly reactive chemical compound that can combine with water to form phosphoric acid. Phosphoric acid is corrosive and can contaminate the soil, potentially making it less fertile and unsuitable for agriculture.
- Water Pollution: Phosphoric bombs that ignite vegetation and structures can lead to runoff and the release of phosphorus compounds into nearby water bodies. Phosphorus is a nutrient that can contribute to eutrophication, a process where excessive nutrients cause algal blooms and oxygen depletion in aquatic ecosystems, harming marine life.
- Air Pollution: The combustion of phosphoric bombs releases white smoke, which consists of phosphorus pentoxide particles. This smoke can irritate the respiratory system and can have adverse health effects on the human population. It can also contribute to particulate matter in the atmosphere, which can degrade air quality and have implications for human health.
- Ecological Impact: The environmental effects of phosphoric bombs extend to the broader ecosystem. Fires caused by these bombs can destroy vegetation and wildlife habitats, affecting local flora and fauna. The release of phosphorus into water bodies can disrupt aquatic ecosystems and have cascading effects on marine life.
- Remnants of Phosphoric Bombs: Unexploded phosphoric bomb remnants can pose a long-term threat to the environment and human safety. They can leach phosphorus compounds into the soil and water over time, contributing to contamination and potentially causing fires or explosions if disturbed.
- Long-Term Effects: The environmental and ecological consequences of phosphoric bombs can be long-lasting. Contaminated soil and water can take years or even decades to recover. The effects on ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife may persist for extended periods, influencing the region's biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Efforts to mitigate these environmental and ecological effects would involve extensive efforts for the proper disposal of unexploded ordnance, the remediation of contaminated areas, and the provision of medical and psychological support to those affected. Additionally, strict adherence to international humanitarian laws, which prohibit the use of white phosphorus in areas populated by civilians, is crucial to prevent further harm to the environment and human population in conflict zones like Gaza Strip.
The current and previous Israeli wars in the Gaza Strip have had significant effects on air pollution. Here are some examples:
- Combustion of Explosives and Buildings: During military operations, explosives are used, and buildings are destroyed. The combustion of explosives and the materials in buildings release various pollutants into the air. For example, when explosives detonate, they produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to the high temperatures and pressures involved. NOx contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone, a harmful air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and cause other health problems.
- Particulate Matter (PM): The destruction of infrastructure generates a significant amount of particulate matter (PM), including soot, dust, and ash. These fine particles can be inhaled deep into the respiratory system, leading to health issues. PM is a heterogeneous mixture of solid and liquid particles that can contain various chemicals, depending on what is being burned or demolished. For instance, the burning of plastics or other synthetic materials in buildings can release toxic chemicals into the air.
- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): The fires caused by Israeli bombardments can release volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. These VOCs can react in the atmosphere to form ground-level ozone and smog. Additionally, some VOCs are hazardous air pollutants that can have serious health effects, including carcinogenic properties.
- Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): Sulfur-containing materials in buildings, such as concrete, can release sulfur dioxide (SO2) when burned. SO2 can lead to respiratory problems, especially for individuals with pre-existing conditions. It can also contribute to the formation of acid rain, which can harm ecosystems and infrastructure.
- Chemical Reactions in the Atmosphere: The chemical reactions between pollutants released during the war can lead to the formation of secondary pollutants. For instance, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can react in the presence of sunlight to produce ground-level ozone, which is a major component of smog. Ground-level ozone is a powerful respiratory irritant and can have detrimental effects on human health.
- Carbon Monoxide (CO): Incomplete combustion of materials can release carbon monoxide (CO), a colorless, odorless gas that can interfere with the body's ability to transport oxygen. Breathing in CO can lead to symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, including headaches, dizziness, and in severe cases, death.
- Heavy Metals: The destruction of infrastructure and military activities can release heavy metals like lead, cadmium, and mercury into the air. These toxic metals can pose serious health risks when inhaled or ingested.
The combined release of these pollutants, can result in a deterioration of air quality in the region, posing a severe threat to public health. These chemical processes, driven by the destruction and combustion of materials during warfare, are complex and can have long-lasting environmental and health consequences for the people of Gaza Strip. Efforts to minimize these impacts should include the development of strategies to address air pollution issues arising during and after wars.
The Gaza Strip had already been suffering from the quantity and quality of water resources prior to this war. Over 95% of water resources in Gaza Strip were unfit for human consumption, but there were tremendous efforts to improve the situation. The current Israeli war has had significant effects on water resources in the Gaza Strip. Here are some examples:
- Salinization of Groundwater: The Gaza Strip is located in an arid region where access to freshwater resources is already limited. Israel has imposed a water blockade on Gaza Strip whereby both surface and groundwater has been prevented from naturally replenishing Gaza Strip’s main water resource, the Coastal Aquifer. The result of this and over-abstraction of the aquifer due to population growth has resulted in salt water intrusion in the aquifer. This is a geologic phenomenon in which saline water from the sea (containing high levels of dissolved salts like sodium and chloride ions) enters coastal aquifers and contaminates the fresh groundwater. The increased salinity of groundwater makes it unfit for drinking and irrigation, which can have severe consequences for agriculture and public health.
- Groundwater Pollution: The war can result in the release of pollutants into the environment, and these contaminants can infiltrate the groundwater. For example, the destruction of buildings can release various hazardous chemicals, including heavy metals and organic compounds, into the soil. These contaminants can leach into the groundwater, posing health risks to those who rely on it for drinking water. Chemical analyses can identify the presence of specific pollutants in the water.
- Sewage Contamination: The destruction of sewage treatment facilities and sewage pipes or the cutting of fuel necessary for its operation can lead to the discharge of raw, untreated sewage into the environment. Sewage contains various contaminants, including pathogens and organic matter. When sewage contaminates surface water or infiltrates the ground, it can lead to the spread of waterborne diseases and affect the overall water quality. The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in water is a common indicator of sewage contamination.
- Desalination Needs: Due to the limited availability of freshwater resources, Gaza Strip relies heavily on desalination to provide drinking water. Desalination is an energy-intensive process, and the destruction of infrastructure, including electrical grids, disrupted the operation of desalination plants. This, in turn, affects the chemical process of removing salts and impurities from seawater to make it suitable for consumption.
- Waterborne Disease Outbreaks: The contamination of water sources with pollutants, including sewage and heavy metals, can lead to outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The chemistry involved in these outbreaks often includes the interaction of pathogens and pollutants in water, which can result in the spread of diseases like cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis.
- Impact on Agriculture: Agriculture in Gaza Strip heavily depends on irrigation, and the limited availability of freshwater due to contamination and salinization impacts crop growth. The chemistry of soil and plant interactions is affected as saline water can lead to the accumulation of salts in the root zone, causing stress to plants and reducing agricultural yields.
The destruction and contamination of water resources during the war have long-lasting consequences on the availability of safe and clean drinking water, agriculture, and public health in Gaza Strip. To address these issues, it is crucial to restore and maintain water infrastructure, as well as to implement measures to protect water sources from contamination and salinization. Additionally, sustainable water management practices, such as wastewater treatment and efficient water use in agriculture, are essential to mitigate the long-term impacts of Israeli wars.
The Israeli war against Gaza Strip have had significant effects on the soil inGaza Strip. Here are some examples:
- Soil Erosion: The destruction caused by the Israeli war, including bombing and shelling, can lead to soil erosion. Soil erosion is the removal of the top layer of soil, which is rich in organic matter and nutrients. This can expose the less fertile subsoil and lead to a loss of soil productivity. The detachment and transportation of soil particles is a physical and chemical process that is influenced by factors such as rainfall and the type of soil itself.
- Contamination with Heavy Metals: The destruction of infrastructure, including buildings and roads, can release heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, into the environment. These metals can contaminate the soil and have long-lasting effects on soil quality. The chemistry of heavy metal contamination in soil involves the binding of metals to soil particles and their potential uptake by plants, which can pose health risks to both the environment and human health.
- Altered Soil pH: The chemistry of soil is strongly influenced by its pH, which affects nutrient availability for plants. The use of explosives and the combustion of materials during the war can release alkaline or acidic substances into the soil, potentially altering its pH. Extreme pH levels can affect the solubility and availability of essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are vital for plant growth.
- Soil Structure Degradation: The compaction of soil caused by the movement of heavy military equipment and the displacement of soil particles by explosions can lead to soil structure degradation. Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into aggregates, and it plays a crucial role in water infiltration and root penetration. The compaction of soil can hinder these processes, affecting plant growth.
- Loss of Organic Matter: The destruction of vegetation and the burning of buildings can lead to a loss of organic matter in the soil. Organic matter is important for soil fertility and its ability to hold moisture. The combustion of organic materials releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, reducing the organic carbon content in the soil.
- Salt Accumulation: The intrusion of seawater into the groundwater, a process known as salinization, can lead to the accumulation of salts in the soil. Salts, including sodium chloride, can negatively impact soil quality and plant growth by disrupting the osmotic balance in plant roots. The chemistry of soil salinity involves the dissolution of salts in water and their interaction with soil particles.
- Chemical Contaminants: The destruction of buildings and infrastructure can release a wide range of chemical contaminants, including hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and hazardous materials. These substances can leach into the soil, affecting its chemical composition and posing potential health risks to those who come into contact with the contaminated soil.
- Impact on Microbial Communities: Soil is home to a diverse community of microorganisms that play a crucial role in nutrient cycling and soil health. The disturbances caused by warfare can disrupt these microbial communities, affecting their ability to decompose organic matter and support plant growth.
The destruction and contamination of soil during wars can have long-term consequences on agriculture, the environment, and human health. Efforts to mitigate these effects should include soil remediation and rehabilitation programs, as well as the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (agro-ecology) to restore soil fertility and prevent further degradation.
The Israeli war has several adverse effects on marine life in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Gaza Strip. Here are some examples:
- Water Pollution: Military actions and infrastructure damage during the war can release various chemical contaminants into the Mediterranean Sea. For example, the combustion of explosives and building materials can discharge chemicals, heavy metals, and other pollutants into the marine environment. These contaminants can affect water quality and marine ecosystems. For instance, heavy metals such as lead and cadmium can enter the water and pose a threat to marine life. The chemistry involved includes the dissolution and dispersion of these substances in seawater.
- Sewage Contamination: The war disrupted sewage treatment facilities and sewage collection systems, leading to the direct discharge of untreated sewage into the sea. Sewage contains organic matter, nutrients (such as nitrogen and phosphorus), and pathogens. When sewage enters the marine environment, it can lead to eutrophication, a process in which excessive nutrients stimulate the growth of algae, leading to oxygen depletion and harm to marine life. The chemistry involved includes nutrient cycling and organic matter decomposition in water.
- Salinity Changes: The intrusion of seawater into the Gaza Strip's groundwater causing salinization can affect nearshore marine environments. The increased salinity can disrupt the balance of marine ecosystems, potentially harming species adapted to a specific salinity range. The chemistry here involves the dilution and mixing of freshwater and seawater.
- Marine Biodiversity: The destruction of coastal areas and habitats, including coral reefs and seagrass beds, can have a direct impact on marine biodiversity. Coral reefs, for example, are highly sensitive to changes in water quality and can suffer from sedimentation and pollution. The chemistry here involves the interactions between pollutants and marine organisms.
- Marine Food Chain: Contaminants introduced into the marine environment, such as heavy metals, can be taken up by marine organisms. This can result in the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in the food chain. For instance, when small marine organisms ingest contaminated particles, they may pass the contaminants on to larger predators. This also poses a risk to human health if people consume contaminated seafood. The chemistry here involves the bioavailability and biomagnification of pollutants.
The cumulative effects of water pollution, sewage discharge, habitat destruction, and other factors have the potential to degrade marine ecosystems and reduce the overall wealth and productivity of the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Gaza Strip. Efforts to mitigate these effects include the protection and restoration of coastal ecosystems, improved sewage treatment, and the promotion of sustainable fishing practices.
The Israeli war against Gaza Strip has significant effects on power supply in Gaza Strip, particularly in relation to energy sources and infrastructure. Here are some examples:
- Damage to Infrastructure: The destruction caused by Israeli war against Gaza Strip, including bombings and shelling, resulted in significant damage to power generation and distribution infrastructure. This damage disrupts the supply of electricity. The breakdown of infrastructure hindered the production and distribution of electricity.
- Fuel Supply: In an act of illegal collective punishment, the Israeli occupation deliberately cut off fuel to the Gaza Strip, affecting the supply of fuel used for electricity generation. Power plants in Gaza Strip rely on diesel generators. The availability of fuel was disrupted by the war, affecting electricity production.
- Alternative Energy Sources: The war may limit access to alternative energy sources, such as solar panels and batteries. These sources play a role in diversifying power supply and reducing the reliance on fossil fuels. In many instances, the Israeli military has directly targeted solar panels in hospitals and other crucial civilian facilities providing services.
- Resource Availability: Access to critical resources used in power generation, like natural gas, was restricted during the war.
- Environmental Consequences: Damage to power infrastructure and fuel supply issues can lead to increased reliance on less efficient or environmentally unfriendly power generation methods, which can release pollutants into the air. These pollutants may include greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter.
- Electrical Grid Interference: Attacks on power infrastructure disrupted the electrical grid, affecting the stability and reliability of electricity supply.
The effects of the Israeli war on power supply are primarily the result of damage to infrastructure, disruption of fuel supply chains, and the environmental consequences of altering the energy mix to compensate for power shortages.
The Israeli war against the Gaza Strip has far-reaching effects that extend beyond the specific areas discussed above. Some additional aspects affected by this war are:
- Humanitarian Crisis: The Israeli war has resulted in a humanitarian crisis in Gaza Strip. It has led to significant forced displacement of people, injuries, and loss of life. Access to healthcare, education, and basic services has been severely hampered. This crisis has social, economic, and public health consequences.
Hundreds of thousands of Gaza Strip residents are now displaced, not to mention thousands of others who have already been displaced from the 2014 and 2021 wars. Thousands of homes were destroyed on the heads of its residents, thus exterminating entire families.
After seeing all these bloody scenes created by the Israeli occupation, some people are still surprised by the perseverance and steadfastness of the Palestinian people in the Gaza Stripas well as their preference to die with dignity rather than to live under humiliating conditions.
- Economic Impact: The ongoing war has disrupted economic activities in Gaza Strip, leading to high unemployment rates and economic instability. Economic infrastructure, including factories, farms, and commercial enterprises, has suffered massive destruction. Economic instability, in turn, affects access to basic necessities and overall well-being.
- Psychological Impact: The war has had a profound psychological impact on the people of Gaza Strip, particularly children who have grown up in a climate of insecurity and violence. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health issues are prevalent.
- Access to Education: The ability of children in Gaza Strip to access education has been severely hindered due to the destruction of schools, the displacement of families, and the general instability. This affects their long-term prospects and the future development of the region.
- Security and Governance: The war has had an impact on the security and governance structures in Gaza Strip. The region has seen political divisions, and security challenges have emerged, complicating efforts to maintain law and order.
- Refugee Crisis: Gaza Strip has been home to a significant number of Palestinian refugees, and the war has exacerbated their displacement and living conditions, leading to a protracted refugee crisis. This has a broader regional and international dimension.
- Cultural and Historical Heritage: Gaza Strip has a rich cultural and historical heritage that has suffered due to damage to historical sites, artifacts, and cultural institutions. Preservation of this heritage is essential for the identity and collective memory of the Palestinian people.
- Regional Diplomatic Relations: The war has strained regional diplomatic relations, affecting geopolitics. Regional stability is also impacted by the ongoing war.
These additional aspects represent the broader societal and political consequences of the Israeli war against Gaza Strip. This war has profound and multifaceted effects on the people, institutions, and overall well-being of those living in Gaza Strip.
The Gaza Strip war has left a lasting imprint, influencing various facets of life and the environment. From the immediate impacts on infrastructure, water resources, and air quality, to the broader consequences such as the humanitarian crisis, economic instability, and social trauma, this war has shaped the region in numerous ways.
Gaza Strip’s life conditions were already miserable before this war. Since 2006, the population in Gaza Strip, have been living under siege and starvation, not only from the Israeli occupation, but since 2013 Egyptian authorities have also contributed to tightening the siege. This war came to destroy what was left of the basic necessities of life in the Gaza Strip.
The destruction and contamination brought by warfare have had severe environmental repercussions, altering the chemistry of soil, water, and air. This has led to soil erosion, water pollution, and air quality deterioration. These environmental consequences, in turn, affect agriculture, public health, and the overall well-being of the population.
However, the effects of the war reach far beyond the physical environment. They have led to a complex humanitarian crisis, contributing to displacement, unemployment, and limited access to education, healthcare and other essential services. The psychological trauma experienced, especially by children, underscores the profound human toll of this conflict.
The war has also political and cultural repercussions, disrupting governance and security structures, contributing to a refugee crises, and affecting regional diplomatic relations. The preservation of cultural heritage is threatened, and the regional geopolitical landscape has been reshaped.
This cruel war has resulted in a catastrophe in which there is a lack of water, food, electricity and medical supplies. The spread of sewage has resulted in the spread of pollutants, lack of public hygiene and skin diseases, especially scabies, itching and rashes, in addition to diarrheal diseases and meningitis among children in particular. The severity of the catastrophe is much greater than the capabilities of the Gaza Strip population to confront on their own.
In conclusion, the Israeli war is a multi-dimensional crisis with deep and far-reaching effects. Understanding these diverse consequences is essential for comprehending the complexities of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and for addressing the urgent needs of the affected population in the Gaza Strip.